Education and training

Keith Eric Grant

Message 25552 · 4 Apr 2001 18:16:43 · Fixed-width font · Whole thread

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Next in thread: Education and training (RuddBaron) wrote:
> =

> =

> --- Someone needs to enlighten the people at medical schools about this=
> Supposedly medicine is aware of this, yet they haven't done much to cha=
> their teaching styles.
> =

It reminds me of my wife's comment about fire departments from her days a=
s a
municipal firefighter -- "Fire departments are motivated by 200 years of
tradition unimpeded by progress"

For the columns I'm writing and more general discussions, I recently put
together a list of links to some good starting points on education theory=
When I find a bit more time, I'll put this stuff together on a web page a=
add the links to the physics education researchers' pages. In the meantim=
the material is short enough and perhaps enough people interested in
thoughts on conveying understanding that I'm appending the list below, wi=
the comments I'd interjected in compiling it.



As a University of California staff physicist/researcher with background =
teaching sports and deep tissue massage since 1992, I have an ongoing
interest in the development and differentiation of massage training and

My interest stems both from a desire to see basic training conveyed as
concisely and effectively as possible with a firm and explicit basis in n=
of content and, for those looking to advanced opportunities in somatic
studies, to insure that massage education takes advantage of the
opportunities to offer new conceptual frameworks and attitudes. In
coordinating with colleges, for example, there are opportunities for syne=
with existing classes in nonverbal communication and in delivery of care =
at risk populations that did not exist in stand-alone postsecondary
vocational schools dedicated to massage training. There are also issues a=
we develop new programs of being respectful of the students' minds, time,=

and funds.

Much educational research showing the weakness of traditional pedagogical=

methods has been done in physics and mathematics education via those such=
Frederick Reif, Edward Redish, and Richard Hake. In "The Unschooled Mind"=
educational psychologist Howard Gardner (Harvard -- Project Zero) referre=
to such studies as the smoking gun in educational methodology. Such studi=
have demonstrated that even students who successfully complete courses an=
programs may have gained only very superficial (right answer) facility an=
be unable to apply the material they have learned apart from the educatio=
context. Brown, Collins, and Duguid have discussed such "situated learnin=
in a classic 1989 paper. I have appended links to some good starting poin=
to this kind of material below.

Ironically, perhaps the clearest discussions on the differentiation of
training and education in terms of goals, context, and methodology comes
from the military venue. This has been covered in a 1985 paper by Dr. Joh=
A. Kline and and later report on the "Brilliant Warrior" direct towards
development of the air and space force for 2025. While are objectives are=

notably different from the militaries, a number of the distinctions made
between education and training have relevance. I have appended links and
quotes from these sources below.

In a similar context of changing learning needs, economist and management=

consultant Peter Drucker has written extensively on the transformation fr=
the industrial worker to the knowledge worker and the need to adopt an
attitude of life-long learning.
( =

How to we foster this attitude in students pursuing advanced somatic stud=
and give them the tools for understanding and continued learning?

Kline, John A., "Education and Training: Some Differences"

Training is essentially a closed system. The trained individual is easily=

recognized as knowing the "right answers," doing things the "approved way=
," =

or arriving at the "school solution." Under these conditions, the product=
s =

of each trainee in every situation can be expected to look the same.
Education, in contrast, is an open system. Learning is continuous with no=

cap or ceiling on how well the graduate may be prepared to handle new
responsibilities. Right answers and ways of doing things often do not exi=
in education=96=96only better or worse ones.

Objectives, job requirements, and skill levels are constraints with
training. Yet time required for training can vary because of the aptitude=
experience, and previous skill level of the student. With education,
however, time is often a constant (four years, ninety semester hours, ten=

months, forty =

hours in class) and therefore is specified.

Brilliant Warrior: Information Technology Integration
in Education and Training -- A Research Paper
Presented To Air Force 2025, August 1996.
Lt Col Carol S. Sikes, Dr. Adelaide K. Cherry, Maj William E. Durall,
Maj Michael R. Hargrove, Maj Kenneth R. Tingman

While military training and education both aim at achieving success in
warfare=97regardless of the nature or type of conflict=97they each have a=

separate and distinct focus. Training is the process of teaching others
specific skills to be performed under defined conditions. It focuses on t=
psychomotor domain of learning and on performing specified tasks in
specified ways to a predetermined level or standard. Military training,
for example, creates competence in using machines and equipment in the
appropriate ways; it ensures that people can operate and maintain militar=
systems used to fight wars.

Education, on the other hand, focuses on the intellectual or cognitive
domain of learning. It is the process of preparing others to solve proble=
and deal with situations not yet known or defined. It is about learning h=
to learn and discovering what we do not know so that we may survive in th=
future. Military education focuses on the art of war and on developing
insights and intellectual constructs that ensure we fight our wars
smartly; it enables the warrior to envision future threats, engage in
creative ways to resolve conflict, select the right tools and methods, an=
achieve the desired effect.


I've been doing some more research on cutting edge thoughts on education =
learning. What follows are the best of the articles and sources I've
uncovered. Part of this started out simply as my searching for the opinio=
of several innovators on the purpose of education. There's enough depth h=
to keep us thinking for a while on this process we call teaching.

And then there was the quote from physicist Richard Feynman: "What I cann=
create I cannot understand." =

(Feynman on teaching


The New Conversations About Learning -- Insights From Neuroscience and
Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies

The Power of Mindful Learning by Ellen J. Langer

Truth, Beauty, and Goodness: Education for All Human Beings A Talk With
Howard Gardner

Howard Gardner on: Unresolved Issues

Howard Gardner on: Being Educated (in 2010)

21st century learning initiative - The Child is Father of the Man

Battery Hens, or Free Range Chickens: What Kind of Education
for What Kind of World

Linda Darling-Hammond on:The Purpose of Education

Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning =

John Seely Brown, Allan Collins, and Paul Duguid =

How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice
National Research Council =

-- =

I Keith Eric Grant I Hail to the mountains with summits of =
I <> I blue. To the glens with their meadows of=
I I sunshine and dew. To the women and men =
I------------------------------I ever constant and true. Ever ready to =
I Over the hills, but not I welcome one home. =
I too far away from the I From the Scottish-American traditiona=
l I
I San Francisco East Bay I song "Mist Covered Mountains". =

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